DOCUMENT: 1994_Radiation Research in the VA Involving Human Subjects_Serial No 103-37 (198 pages, .pdf 9.6 MB)
Today we haul yet another dark chapter of the history of “The Greatest Democracy In The World(TM)”, the United States, out of the memory hole and bring it back to public scrutiny; this time in an easily accessible, downloadable and shareable digital form.
This document is but a tiny glimpse of the long-running radiation experiments the US Department of Defense and related US Government agencies carried out, during successive Democratic and Republican administrations, on willing and unwilling US servicemen from WWII until at least the mid-1970s. The experiments that were carried out on US soldiers after 1947 who were unaware that they were being used as guinea pigs were in direct violation of the August, 1947 Nuremburg Code relating to “permissible human experiments” that were introduced by two American doctors during the 1947 Doctors Trial of Nazi doctors accused of war crimes. This trial, which was given world-wide publicity, was used as a propaganda campaign by the US Government to demonstrate the moral superiority of the “Western democracies” over “totalitarian regimes” – a category in which the German and Japanese fascist regimes were lumped together with their enemies and victims, most notably the nations of the allied Stalinist socialist states that comprised the Soviet Union.
What the world did not know, and what US “Deep State” “national security” laws prevented the world from knowing for decades, was that at the very same time that the United States Government was brandishing their own newly-promulgated legal guidelines against the conducting of medical and other experiments on unwitting human subjects, they were fully engaged in ongoing mass experimentation on unwitting human subjects both inside the USA and in several foreign countries! The United States’ loudly-proclaimed “moral superiority” over the “communist world” – a global propaganda campaign which continues to this very day – has been a complete fraud from Day One – and it continues to be a complete fraud.
This very brief report merely scratches the surface of the vast, long-running radiation and many other “medical” experiments that were carried out by the US government on its own soldiers and civilians. The US Department of Veterans Affairs hospital system – supposed to exist solely to provide medical and mental health services for the many US soldier-victims of imperialist wars started by the capitalist world, was instead turned into a means by which tens of thousands of US servicemen were used as human guinea pigs for decades for testing of radioactive materials, hallucinogenic drugs, and a host of other medications and toxins – rarely truly wittingly, most usually unwittingly.
In his opening statement to the hearing included in this pamphlet, Rep. Lane Evans captured the disgusting reality of just how much the US capitalist class, their military leaders and their government really cares about US military personnel, past or present:
“I can’t help but feel that Federal agencies, particularly the Department of Defense, have felt that they could do whatever they wanted to our armed forces personnel. During the past 50 years, troops have been subjected to the number of agents, such as ionizing radiation, mustard gas, Agent Orange, and LSD, without being made aware of the potential risks. While these men and women are willing to fight for our Nation and possibly be injured and killed in battle, I doubt that any of them ever believed that some of the greatest dangers that they might face would be coming from our own Federal Government.”
Not surprisingly, no one – not a single US Government official responsible for carrying out these Nazi-like experiments on US armed services personnel – has ever been prosecuted for these crimes. Only after we in the US working class super-majority finally organize ourselves into a revolutionary Trotskyist party that overthrows the disgusting, money-lusting, war-mongering, racist, murderous US capitalist class micro-minority will these criminals ever be brought to justice, and these kinds of monstrous practices be finally, permanently, relegated to the dustbin of our barbaric capitalist historical past.
—- Independent Workers Party of Chicago/ Friends of WikiLeaks – Chicago
[MOST RECENT UPDATE 4 SEPTEMBER 2020]
[UPDATED 16 AUGUST 2020: CIA cryptonym info added; extensive biographical info on some of von Bolschwing’s fascist Romanian Iron Guard co-conspirators; several new von Bolschwing docs added. UPDATED: 11/12 August 2020 with declassified CIA “Studies In Intelligence” article from 1998: “Prussian Nobleman, SS Officer, and CIA Agent: The Case of Otto Albrecht Alfred von Bolschwing” by Kevin C. Ruffner and a first-person account of how US military intelligence secured the services of top Nazi Military Intelligence chief Reinhard Gehlen and his fascist “Gehlen Organization.”]
It is a well-known fact that at the end of WWII the United States Government and its “intelligence agencies”, seeking to destroy the Soviet Union and to prevent the Communist Parties of Western Europe from being voted into power due to the enormous respect they had attained as leaders of the anti-fascist Resistance in WWII, recruited some of the worst Nazi war criminals as “freedom fighters” and intelligence agents. In recent decades the documentary proof of just to what extent the agents of the “Free World(TM)” conspired with the agents of Nazi Germany to get this job done have begun to be revealed. This blows away the prevailing myth spread by OSS and, later, the CIA and its apologists – in the US and elsewhere – that the OSS and CIA were created and led by “honorable men” working to defend “freedom” and “democracy” against “the forces of totalitarianism”. The US capitalist class and their “Deep State” have always allied themselves with the most “totalitarian” governments on Earth – provided that they were “pro-capitalist” totalitarians – like Hitler’s Nazis.
Here we examine the case of one Baron Otto von Bolschwing – a “former” German SS-Hauptsturmführer in the Nazi Sicherheitsdienst (SD) According to George Washington University’s National Security Archive “Bolschwing ‘had been [convicted and executed SS War Criminal Adolf] Eichmann’s tutor on Zionism and the politics of Zionism in the mid-1930s and then his ally in persecuting the Jews of Austria'”. Bolschwing was also the SS man working with the fascist Iron Guard of Romania during the war and had helped several of its leaders escape to Germany to avoid arrest after they had committed the infamous Bucharest pogrom of January 1941.
When the OSS and CIA first encountered von Bolschwing (perhaps as early as June, 1945 – just one month after the Nazi surrender) he was working with Nazi Military Intelligence General Reinhard Gehlen, who had maintained his entire Nazi “Foreign Armies East” (FHO) intelligence organization intact – records, staff and all. US military intelligence immediately acquired Gehlen, his staff and all his intelligence records and brought them all to Washington in August of 1945 (it’s not clear if von Bolschwing made this trip but he probably did not). [ See Report of Initial Contacts with General Gehlen’s Organization by John R Boker Jr May 1 1952]
By February, 1950, von Bolschwing transferred from the Gehlen Organization to the US Central Intelligence Agency; during his time working for the CIA in Europe he was magically transformed into a member of the anti-Nazi Resistance so that he could emigrate to the USA where he enjoyed a successful and lucrative career as both a businessman and sometime CIA operative. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS, wartime precursor to the CIA) prevented him from being arrested as a war criminal by the Soviets and the Austrians; later the CIA concocted a false biography for him in order to obtain de-Nazification papers from the Austrian Government and to get the US Immigration and Naturalization Service to allow him to enter the USA legally and become a US citizen.
Having been deliberately misled by US intelligence agencies for decades about von Bolschwing’s Nazi past, the US Department of Justice did not file charges against him until 1979, by which time he was so aged and infirm that the hearings had to be postponed. He died in a California nursing home in 1982.
This story is the common story of how the US Government helped perhaps hundreds of high-ranking Nazi war criminals evade prosecution for their crimes and enjoy long and often quite prosperous lives in the US and other countries around the world – often in the employment of the very US intelligence agencies that conspired to set them free.
This is a sample of the over 300 documents we have found on the CIA’s “Freedom of Information Act Reading Room” regarding SS-Hauptsturmführer von Bolschwing’s long career as top Nazi, OSS man and CIA agent. We may be adding more if we find any particularly intriguing ones. All of these documents are now hosted on our own website so you don’t have to surf to the CIA’s website to obtain them. They’ve also been backed up to the Internet Archive.
CIA cryptonyms used in these docs:
CIC: US Army’s Counter-Intelligence Corps
CID: US Army’s Criminal Investigative Division
DYCLEMATIS: CIA Office of Special Operations
GROOVY: CIA cable indicator for Austrian intelligence operations
GROSSBAHN: one of von Bolschwing’s CIA cover names. Others include USAGE and UNREST
GRUESOME: Detachment 35 of G-2 US Forces Austria (Det 35 G-2 USFA).
KUBARK: US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); CIA Headquarters, Langley, Virginia
LCFLUTTER: CIA code for a polygraph examination.
ODACID: US Embassy and/or US Dept. of State. If used in relation to a US embassy it likely refers to the embassy of the country being referred to in the document.
ODEUM: refers to the Nazi War Criminal-run Gehlen Organization, founding organization of the new West German Fourth Reich’s spy agency Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service aka BND).
ODIBEX: US Army
ODURGE: the US Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS).
OSS: Office of Strategic Services; WWII-era precursor to CIA.
REDCAP: “In 1951, CIA launched Operation REDCAP, ‘a systematic and concentrated program of penetration and defection inducement operations directed at Soviet official installations outside the USSR.'” The main focus was on citizens of the Soviet Union working in Germany and Austria. More info from this declassified CIA ‘working paper’: Operation REDCAP – CIA AND NAZI WAR CRIM. AND COL. CHAP. 11-21, DRAFT WORKING PAPER_0003
RUSTY: Gehlen Organization. von Bolschwing was recruited from the Gehlen Organization by the CIA.
TRAJAN: CIA cryptonym for Jon Margarit, Romanian fascist Iron Guardist, born in Greece. From 1942 worked for Nazi German Intelligence in Nazi-occupied Greece; in 1947 went to work for Gehlen Organization; von Bolschwing assisted Margarit’s infiltration into Romania where he went to work for Gehlen “to get in touch with the Romanian ‘Iron Guard’ and try to win them over to active intelligence work for the West” (see CIA Files for Romanian Fascist MARGARIT, JON_0100).
UJDRUID: Romanian fascist and Iron Guard leader Constantin (sometimes “Constantine”) Papanace. Von Bolschwing worked with him as a Nazi SD/SS officer in Romania and helped him escape to Germany after the Iron Guard was outlawed. Papanace had been a secretary in the Romanian Ministry of Finance during the Legionnaire Cabinet. After the war Papanace worked in Rome where he and his Romanian fascist exile group was “supported by the Vatican”* (*see CIA Files for Romanian Iron Guard Fascist PAPANACE, CONSTANTINE_0048). He was recruited by von Bolschwing on the CIA’s behalf to run agents for the CIA against the USSR in Romania and elsewhere. The Romanian government placed Papanace on its list of wanted war criminals in February of 1945 (see CIA Files for Romanian Iron Guard Fascist PAPANACE, CONSTANTINE_0008).
UNREST: von Bolschwing CIA cover name starting in February 1950
USAGE: von Bolschwing CIA cover name
UTILITY: CIA cryptonym for Nazi Military Intelligence Chief and founder of West German secret service BND Reinhard Gehlen.
ZACABAL: The CIA.
ZACABIN: CIA Office of Special Operations (OSO)
ZIPPER: Gehlen Organization (see ODEUM)
— FoWL Chicago
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: “Prussian Nobleman, SS Officer, and CIA Agent: The Case of Otto Albrecht Alfred von Bolschwing” by Kevin C. Ruffner from 1998 edition of “Studies In Intelligence”.
Background on von Bolschwing and his efforts on behalf of Romanian fascist “Iron Guard” and likely involvement in anti-Jewish pogrom in Bucharest, Romania in January, 1941: from Wikipedia article “Iron Guard”: “Failure and Destruction”; from From Wikipedia article “Legionnaires rebellion and Bucharest pogrom”: “The Bucharest pogrom”.